There are countless words of exactly the same notation in Japan and China as the country with each other in the same East Asian cultural sphere.Some of the same meaning at the same notation, some of which represent a completely different things at the same notation.For the latter, for example, “daughter” (Japanese daughter, Chinese ha ha), kind of “letter” (Japanese letters, Chinese toilet paper) corresponds to the entry-level.However, when it comes to senior level, come out quite difficult words.So what does “humanity” you wrote in this title, meaning the same or, or different.If different, how different.
For “Kojien (Fourth Edition)” is “humanity”, “(1) human affection provided in nature.Mercy.Mercy.(2) nature of the movement of human nature.I explained that “.
In other words, in Japan “humanity” is used and of the human bare emotion, as the word that means caring for others.By way of example, “thick people with humanity”, “humanity House”, “humanity of subtlety”, there is such as “humaneness”.
On the other hand, in China “humanity” or refer to what.”Crown Sino-Japanese Dictionary” (Matsuoka Sakaekokorozashi other ed., Sanseido 2001) is to interpret the “humanity” of Chinese as follows:.
“(1) humanity.(2) personal feelings, favoritism.(3) Yoshimi, favor.(4) ceremonial functions and relationship of gift.(5) public relationship.”
If we compare the two, but does not mean there is no common parts, and intends Yokaro been understood as fundamentally a different use.For that all “humanity” of Japanese have the meaning of plus, “humanity” of the Chinese meaning of plus less in reverse, is a neutral or negative.(4) and (5) neutral, (2) is used in the negative, (3) most negative meaning of.For example, “做個 humanity” (indicating Yoshimi), “provisional humanity”, “empty head humanity” (courtesy of veneer).
In addition, “humanity” is personal feelings in Japan, favoritism, gift, there is no use such relationship.That said, “humanity” is also for the Japanese, but not even put out great book of Ruth Benedict, “The Chrysanthemum and the Sword” (the Chapter 9, “humanity of the world”) to inquiries, and in a very important part of the spirit world is there.
“Humanity” of Chinese is very often especially refers to the gift of ceremonial and socializing.Here, we want to advance the brush to focus on how to use this.
As mentioned a little in the last column (2), in recent years in China, has been popular the word “humanity guy”.Its meaning is “relationship of slavery”, “that you are afflicted with entertainment expenses”.
Relatives, friends, is not to mention money-consuming relationship with colleagues.Chinese be very care about the amount of entertainment expenses.Because, entertainment expenses is because a very high percentage of revenue.Especially in recent years, has been entertainment expenses are soaring as the word “humanity guy” is born.
It’s a matter of course, but the situation that suffer from entertainment expenses is not in any way that is now born for the first time.You are clearly remember that it was also the time to young the author.At that time, the common people of the relationship of rural areas mainly “high year” (New Year of mutual visits), “birthday”, “marriage”, “funeral”, “full moon” (age 1 month), “one year old” (age 1 year old), it was like “new construction”.Relatives, relatives, if friends, give a certain cash or real in consideration of the economic strength and degree of each other relationship (sweets, sugar, meat, chicken, eggs, etc.).In addition, The recipient to return to the side to give.
At that time, less cash income, because the relationship of kith and kin also a much more dense era than now, and to prepare a cash and real for give it was that really a very.Both the author of parents large family (father four siblings, mother nine siblings) for, was a state, such as subsequent year alone relatives relationship.Although habit of local community, these relatives relationship to make ends meet most women (housewife) is.Father of salary is not enough at all, my mother was always and the like gift with the help money from relatives and friends.
Speaking of memories of boyhood, two storage is deepest for author.One is always that stomach is free, the other one is the appearance that the mother is plagued by debt.
Always feeling that stomach is free as it was born from those days of extreme poverty, can not be forgotten easily even now.The that must be a relationship until debt to, Chinese culture, is attributed to the Chinese customs, which unfortunately, still followed by.Are salaried workers in urban areas also suffered entertainment expenses, as introduced in the previous column (2).Seems less rural areas of cash income has fallen even more daunting situation.
“People’s Daily” of June 2010 dated 8 posted posts of signing “Sobun”.Its title, “has raged” humanity of wind, “he plunged the mountainous areas of people in poverty” is that.Here we try to introduce its contents.
Not net per capita annual income of farmers less than 3000 yuan in Hubei favor 施土 family Miao Autonomous Region.On the other hand, in recent years, “humanity of wind” here has raged more and more strongly, it has become unbearable burden on residents.
In Xuan’en County Sha groove Town net per capita annual income of 2009 was 2350 yuan.When you were 4-person households, annual net revenue will be more than 9000 yuan.However, entertainment expenses for one year no less than 5000 yuan per household.In other words, more than half of the earnings of one year is that disappeared in the “humanity”.If there are children if attending high school and college in the house, spending will exceed the revenue, required investment in agricultural production for the next year (seed, fertilizer, purchase, such as pesticides) I can not be.
The post quoted the article “on 施晩 report” of 4 Date April 2009.According to it, residents Lee of Enshi City Xu Iemura in 30s, was homecoming from migrant.That the maximum of trouble after homecoming’s squeeze of entertainment expenses.Marriage, other funeral, I open the child’s birth month, full 10-year-old, 33-year-old adult, 36-year-old, 50-year-old, 55-year-old, all birthday party in 60 years.In addition, moving, such as completion and start of new construction also must do a celebration party.Increase in these celebrations “humanity” (your Shuku-kin) is fewer if 50 yuan, and many as several hundred yuan thousand yuan, up to several thousand yuan.Lee Contact Shuku-kin that was listed in the month you have reached to 3800 yuan.
In addition, these funny thing is greatly 挫-I incentives for agricultural production of farmers, that not a few who the migrant labor to distant order to escape from the shackles of “humanity”.
And finally contributor government the use of consumption awareness and money for rural residents call so that the leadership actively.In other words, to raise awareness of rural residents, but decide that you want to suppress the spread of “humanity of wind”.
And by the author thought reading this article, “humanity of wind” is why so raging of, not only the city, it becomes more and more terrible situation rural without exception.Whether the factors are not still intended to honor the “face” that is built into the Chinese gene.This has been through the bottom where indeed various, it does not matter that never can be resolved by the government and Toka Toka guidance instruction of administrative.Economic strength and far beyond building a national power (authority), station building, it’s clear even look at such as airports.
Of course, not going to interpret all on the grounds that honor the “face”.There is also pragmatic factors in addition.Chinese society is above all to cherish the connection.It is enough to be said to be particularly not do anything if there is no connection currently.Many of the relationship is actually to make connections, to maintain the connection, it is in order to deepen the connection.But it is also part of hurts to get your Shuku-kin, very often you are going to approach the very hard to make the relationship between the people in the reverse.At that time, is the largest of the weapon, socializing told incense none other than the most effective way.
And bureaucrats who hold the real power through socializing in everyday life, he steadily fertilize their Shifuku.Border of bribery and the “humanity” is originally ambiguous, there are many corruption bureaucracy also to self-defense is not only to exchange of “humanity”.
(Authors: Wenliang Wang Kinjo Gakuin University Professor editors: Searchina Media Division)